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Different Data Architecture Patterns

Solutions Review’s Tim King created this introductory resource to highlight the different data architecture patterns for your reference.

Data architecture patterns are standardized, reusable solutions to common data-related problems or challenges in designing data systems. These patterns provide guidance on how to structure data, manage data flows, and create data storage and processing solutions. Here are some different data architecture patterns:

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  1. Layered Architecture:
    • The layered architecture pattern separates different aspects of data processing into distinct layers, such as the presentation layer, application layer, and data layer. Each layer has its specific responsibilities and interacts with the layers above and below it. This pattern helps in achieving modularity and maintainability.
  2. Batch Processing:
    • Batch processing patterns involve processing data in predefined, fixed-size batches. Data is collected, stored, and processed at specific intervals or times. This pattern is commonly used for tasks like ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) in data warehousing.
  3. Real-Time Stream Processing:
    • Real-time stream processing patterns handle data as it arrives in real-time. Data is processed and analyzed immediately, often using stream processing frameworks like Apache Kafka or Apache Flink. This pattern is suitable for applications requiring low-latency data analysis.
  4. Lambda Architecture:
    • Lambda architecture combines batch and real-time processing to provide a holistic view of data. It includes two paths: the batch layer for historical data processing and the speed layer for real-time data processing. The results from both layers are merged to provide comprehensive insights.
  5. Microservices Architecture:
    • Microservices architecture patterns decompose applications into small, independent services that can be developed, deployed, and scaled individually. Each microservice may have its own data storage and processing components, facilitating agility and scalability.
  6. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA):
    • SOA patterns structure applications as a collection of loosely coupled services that communicate through standardized interfaces. Data services play a significant role in managing and delivering data to different parts of the application.
  7. Data Warehouse Architecture:
    • Data warehousing patterns define how data is collected, transformed, and stored for reporting and analysis. Common patterns include star schema, snowflake schema, and data vault modeling.
  8. Master Data Management (MDM):
    • MDM patterns help manage and maintain consistent, accurate, and authoritative master data across an organization. This includes patterns for data consolidation, data governance, and data synchronization.
  9. Data Lake Architecture:
    • Data lake patterns define how raw data from various sources is stored in a central repository, often without predefined structure. This allows for flexibility in handling diverse data types and enables big data analytics.
  10. Event Sourcing:
    • Event sourcing patterns capture all changes to application state as a series of immutable events. This approach can be used to reconstruct past states and provide a complete audit trail.
  11. Polyglot Persistence:
    • Polyglot persistence patterns involve using multiple data storage technologies to handle different aspects of data within a system. For example, using a relational database for structured data and a NoSQL database for unstructured or semi-structured data.
  12. CQRS (Command Query Responsibility Segregation):
    • CQRS patterns separate the read and write sides of an application, allowing for optimization of data storage and processing for each operation type (commands for updates and queries for retrieval).
  13. Data Mesh:
    • Data mesh patterns propose a decentralized approach to data architecture, where data is treated as a product, and cross-functional teams take ownership of their data domains. It aims to scale data and analytics across the organization.
  14. Data Virtualization:
    • Data virtualization patterns provide a unified and abstracted view of data from various sources without physically moving or replicating data. This approach simplifies data access and reduces data duplication.
  15. Data Governance and Metadata Management:
    • Data governance patterns define how organizations establish policies, procedures, and controls for managing data assets effectively. Metadata management patterns ensure that data is cataloged, documented, and tracked throughout its lifecycle.

These data architecture patterns provide a foundation for designing effective data systems and solving common data-related challenges. Depending on the specific requirements and goals of a project, organizations may employ one or more of these patterns to create robust and scalable data solutions.

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